# How to solve Leetcode 797. All Paths From Source to Target

## An example of a Depth-first search algorithm

### Problem statement

Given a *directed acyclic graph* (DAG) of `n`

nodes labeled from `0`

to `n - 1`

, find all possible paths from node `0`

to node `n - 1`

and return them in any order.

The graph is given as follows: `graph[i]`

is a list of all nodes you can visit from node `i`

(i.e., there is a directed edge from node `i`

to node `graph[i][j]`

).

#### Example 1

```
Input: graph = [[1,2],[3],[3],[]]
Output: [[0,1,3],[0,2,3]]
Explanation: There are two paths: `0 -> 1 -> 3` and `0 -> 2 -> 3`.
```

#### Example 2

```
Input: graph = [[4,3,1],[3,2,4],[3],[4],[]]
Output: [[0,4],[0,3,4],[0,1,3,4],[0,1,2,3,4],[0,1,4]]
```

#### Example 3

```
Input: graph = [[1],[]]
Output: [[0,1]]
```

#### Example 4

```
Input: graph = [[1,2,3],[2],[3],[]]
Output: [[0,1,2,3],[0,2,3],[0,3]]
```

#### Example 5

```
Input: graph = [[1,3],[2],[3],[]]
Output: [[0,1,2,3],[0,3]]
```

#### Constraints

`n == graph.length`

.`2 <= n <= 15`

.`0 <= graph[i][j] < n`

.`graph[i][j] != i`

(i.e., there will be no self-loops).All the elements of

`graph[i]`

are unique.The input graph is guaranteed to be a DAG.

### Solution: Depth-first search (DFS)

This problem is exactly the Depth-first search algorithm.

#### Code

```
#include <vector>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void DFS(vector<vector<int>>& graph, vector<vector<int>>& paths, vector<int>& path) {
for (auto& node : graph[path.back()]) {
path.push_back(node);
if (node == graph.size() - 1) {
paths.push_back(path);
path.pop_back();
} else {
DFS(graph, paths, path);
}
}
path.pop_back();
}
vector<vector<int>> allPathsSourceTarget(vector<vector<int>>& graph) {
vector<vector<int>> paths;
vector<int> path = {0};
DFS(graph, paths, path);
return paths;
}
void printPaths(vector<vector<int>>& paths) {
cout << "[";
for (auto& p : paths) {
cout << "[";
for (auto& node : p) {
cout << node << ",";
}
cout << "],";
}
cout << "]\n";
}
int main() {
vector<vector<int>> graph = {{1,2},{3},{3},{}};
auto paths = allPathsSourceTarget(graph);
printPaths(paths);
graph = {{4,3,1},{3,2,4},{3},{4},{}};
paths = allPathsSourceTarget(graph);
printPaths(paths);
}
```

```
Output:
[[0,1,3,],[0,2,3,],]
[[0,4,],[0,3,4,],[0,1,3,4,],[0,1,2,3,4,],[0,1,4,],]
```

#### Complexity

Runtime:

`O(N^2)`

, where`N = graph.length`

.Extra space:

`O(N)`

.

### References

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